Alexandre Kimenyi
   

KUGURISHA IBIGO N'INGANDA ZA LETA BYARI BIKWIYE GUHAGARIKWA
Muri iyi minsi leta imaze kugurisha ibigo byayo byinshi hamwe n'inganda
kandi inafite n'imigambi yo kubigurisha byose. Ibi biduteye inkenke
n'impungenge kuko yafashe iyo migambi bitizwe n'impuguke z'abanyarwanda
ku buryo bunonosoye. Twabonaga rero ko byaba byiza ko iryo gurishwa ryaba
rihagaze, maze impuguke zazobereye kwiga gucunga imari,zikabyigana
ubwitonzi hanyuma zikaba ari zo zitubwira niba koko kugurisha ibyo bigo
n'izo nganda ari yo nzira nziza yonyine yatuma umutungo w'igihugu
wiyongera kandi ukagirira abanyarwanda bose akamaro. Twebwe icyo tuzi ni
uko kugurisha ibigo bya Leta ari yo tukiva mu ntambara n'itsembabwoko,
tutari twamenya neza inzira z'ubutegetsi dushaka kuganamo, ari bibi, tukaba
ari nabyo dusobanura muri iyi nyandiko.Biramutse bibonetse ko Leta idashobora
gucunga ibigo byayo na none hari ibyo, n'iyo byamera bite, itagombye
kugurisha kubera akamaro kabyo nka Electrogaz cyangwa Rwandatel.


ICYATEYE LETA KUGURISHA IBIGO BYAYO
Turakeka ko hari impamvu ebyiri zatumye Leta ifata icyemezo cyo kugurisha
ibi bigo n'inganda: (i) Kubera agahato yashyizweho na Banki z'isi
ziguriza ibihugu bikennye ari zo World Bank and IMF (International
Monetary Fund), (ii) Kubera gukomeza guhomba kw'ibi bigo n'ibidahombye
umutungo ntiwiyongere.


World Bank na IMF mu by'ukuri ni banki zo muri Amerika. Si u Rwanda
rwonyine, ubu ibihugu byinshi bigurizwa n'izo banki byategetswe kugurisha
ibigo byabyo mu bijyanye n'ibyo bise Structural Adjustment nko kugabanya
umubare w'abakozi, kugabanya umubare w'ingabo z'igihugu, no kumanura
agaciro k'ifaranga. Izo banki zemeje ibyo bihugu ko igituma ibigo
byabyo bihomba ari ukutamenya gucunga imari kw'izo Leta, kwiba, cyangwa
se kubyonona. Kubera ko Leta nyinshi kugirango zikore, zibone amafaranga
yo guhemba abakozi, zitunzwe n'imyenda zihora zisaba izo banki, ntako
zabigenza. Zemera ayo mategeko kuko ngo " ntawe uburana n'umuhamba".
Mu by'ukuri rero umuti si ukugurisha ibyo bigo nk'uko tuza kubyerekana.Akenshi
ni ukubera ko Leta iha ibyo bigo abayobozi batabikwiye kubera ubuhanga buke
n'ubushobozi buke.


Impamvu izo banki zishaka ko izi leta zikennye zigurisha ibigo byazo ni
ukwongera kuzishyira mu bukoloni bushya. Muti gute?
Iyo ibyo bigo bigurishijwe birumvikana ko Leta niba ishaka koko kwunguka
igomba gukoresha cyamunara, utanze igiciro cyo hejuru akaba ari we uhabwa
icyo kigo. Murumva rero ko Abanyamerika, Abanyaburayi n'Abayapani ari bo
hafi ya kenshi bazabigura kuko ari bo bafite amafaranga menshi.
Kugirango bitagaragara, abenegihugu bakarakara, hari ubwo bakorana
n'abandi banyamafaranga bo mu gihugu, mu by'ukuri umugabane munini ari
uw'abanyamahanga. Biramutse biguzwe n'abanegihugu na none Leta
irahahombera kubera ko batashobora kubona amafaranga aguze ibyo bigo kuko
bihenda.Icyo gihe igiciro gishyirwa hasi. Banayabonye baba barinze
kuyaguza na none ku mabanki yo mu gihugu. Baramutse bahombye n'izo banki
zahomba.


Indi mpamvu World Bank na IMF zishaka ko leta zigurisha ibigo n'inganda ni
ukugirango ibyo bihugu bikize na none byibonere amasoko yo kugurisha
ibintu byabo. Iyo ibigo n'inganda biri mu maboko ya Leta, igerageza
kurinda ibigurishwa by'ibigo byayo kugirango idahomba. Ibintu biturutse
hanze ibyakaho amahoro menshi n'imisoro myinshi n'abashaka kugurisha ibintu mu
gihugu bagacibwa amafaranga menshi baka impapuro zibaha uruhushya rwo
gucuruza. Iyo ibigo bya leta byagurishijwe rero, ibyo bituruka
hanze byoroha kwinjira kandi ku giciro gito kuko biba bidafite abaguzi mu
bihugu biturukamo. Ibi bihombesha abacuruzi bo mu gihugu kandi
byaranatangiye no mu Rwanda.


Ubundi ibiciro bigiye hasi ni byiza kuri rubanda rwa giseseka kuko nabo
bashobora kubigura.Kugabanya igiciro rero ntawe utabyifuza. Ikibi ni uko
byica inganda z'igihugu, zigahagarikwa, n'abantu bakavanwa ku kazi. Kandi na
none ngo "ak'imuhana kaza imvura ihise". Nk'igihe ibintu bidashoboye
kwinjira, bitewe n'intambara y'ibihugu bidukikije cyangwa ibindi, na none
abaturage bamenyereye ibyo bintu byo hanze barahagorerwa. Umugambi wa
mbere wa Leta ni ukureba uburyo igihugu gishobora kwitunga ubwacyo.
Ubu izi banki zifite na politiki itegeka ibihugu byose bikiri mu nzira
y'amajyambere yo gukingura imipaka ibigurwa byo hanze bikinjira mu gihugu mu
byo bita ubu "free market" na "globalization" mu cyongereza. Mu nama iherutse
kubera i Bulayi irimo abantu bajya gukabakaba ibihumbi bibiri, abahagarariye
ibihugu bikiri mu nzira y'amajyambere nka Perezida Mubarak wa Misiri,
yarabyamaganye, avuga ko bigiye kworeka ibyo bihugu aho kubifasha.


IGITUMA KUGURISHA IBIGO BYA LETA ARI BIBI
Igituma leta zibaho kandi abantu hafi ya bose bakaba bazemera ni uko
zizana umutekano mu gihugu, zikarinda abaturage baramutse batewe n'ibindi
bihugu, cyangwa haje izindi mvururu mu gihugu, abantu bamwe bashatse
gusagarira abandi kubera intege nke.
Si ibyo gusa, Leta igomba no kureba uburyo umuturage wese atera imbere mu
mibereho myiza, ubuzima bwiza no kujijuka. Ibi nabyo abaturage barabizi, ni
nacyo gituma abasore bagomba kujya mu ngabo z'igihugu igihe babitegetswe.
Ni nayo mpamvu, abantu bumva ko ari ngombwa ko imisoro itangwa kugirango Leta
igere ku mishinga n'imigambi yayo yose.
Ibigo bya Leta rero icyo bibereyeho ni ukugirango igire umutungo uhagije
utuma ugera ku ntego yo kugera ku byiza by'abaturage bose nko kubonera
akazi abantu benshi, kugira amashuri meza, kugira ibitaro byiza, abavuzi
babishoboye n'imiti, kurwanya inzara no gutura neza kw'abaturage.
Leta iramutse igurishije ibigo byayo ntabwo ishobora kugera kuri izi
ntego.


Icya mbere kizaba ni uko abakozi benshi bazirukanwa ku kazi.
Mu bihugu byinshi, Leta ni yo iba ifite abakozi benshi, kuko ari cyo
ibereyeho ngo ifashe abenegihugu kwitunga. N'iyo umutungo wabaye muke,
ntiyirukana abo bakozi, ahubwo irifashisha ikanaguza kugirango abo bakozi
bagume ku kazi kabo. Mu bucuruzi si cyo kimwe, kuko icyo umucuruzi
cyangwa sosite baba bashaka ari ugukoresha inzira izo aro zo zose
kugirango umutungo wiyongere. Imwe muri zo ni ukwirukana abakozi. Kubera
amajyambere, hari akazi katagikeneye abantu usanga gakorwa n'imashini
kandi ku mafaranga make. Hari n'ubwo babona atari ngombwa kugira umukozi
wa buri munsi uhenda, bagakoresha uwisumamo uhembwa kw'isaha kuko atwara
make kandi ntahabwe ibindi abakozi buzuye bahembwa nka konji,
uburenganzira bwo kuvuzwa kwa muganga, ibihembo, kwongererwa umushahara
cyangwa pansiyo. Ibi muri iki gihe birakorwa mu bihugu byinshi ndetse
n'ibikize nka hano muri Amerika. Mu cyongereza babyise "downsizing". Ni
ukuvuga rero ko abashomeri bagiye kwiyongera n'umubare w'abakene ukajya
hejuru. Iyo ubukene rero bwiyongereye ni naho urugomo narwo ruvuka, kuko
haza amabandi, yiba akanica, kubera kubura ibiryo n'amacumbi hamwe
n'ubumaraya. Ntabwo tuvuga ko Leta itakoresha nayo tekinoloji nshya mu
mirimo yayo cyangwa ngo ntiyirukane abakozi igihe ibona badakenewe.
Kugirango Leta idahomba, ahubwo umutungo wayo uhore wiyongera, ni uko
ikora nk'uko abacuruzi bakora. Igomba kumenya umubare w'abakozi ikeneye,
si mu bigo n'inganda zayo gusa, ndetse no mu kazi ka Leta gasanzwe nko
muri za minisiteri.Buri mukozi akaba ashinzwe akazi ke bwite, ashobora
gutangaho raporo, yerekana ibyo yagezeho nka buri kwezi. Mu biro byinshi
bya Leta hari abakozi bitaba pereza bakirirwa bicaye, sa kumi n'imwe
yagera bagataha, ngo bavuye ku kazi!Ntabwo biba ari amakosa yabo
kwirirwa mu biro ntacyo bakora kuko biba biturutse kuri ba shebuja.
Abakoresha cyangwa amasosiyete yigenga aramutse aguze ibyo bigo si
ukwirukana abakozi gusa, ahubwo hari ubwo banakora mu buryo bubi. Hari
ubwo imishahara y'abakozi ishobora kugabanuka kugirango abo bacuruzi bunguke
byinshi. Hari ubwo bategekwa gukora amasaha menshi kurusha, n'aho bakorera
ugasanga hatameze neza kubera ko ba nyiri akazi baba badashaka "gutagaguza"
amafaranga yabo bahagira neza.


Ibi na none bituma haza agatsiko k'abanyarwanda bakize cyane na rubanda
rwa giseseka ruhinduka abatindi. Ibi rero bituma haza umutekano muke n'umwuka
mubi mu gihugu.


Iyo ibi bigo biguzwe n'abanyamahanga, abenegihugu bongera guta agaciro
kubera kujya gusabiriza no kwaka akazi abo banyamahanga.
Ikindi gikunda gushyika iyo Leta igurishije inganda zayo ni umwanda
n'iyarara biza mu gihugu. Uyu mwanda n'iyarara iyo biturutse mu nganda
biba bifite uburozi bwica ubutaka n'abantu (environmental hazards). Aba
bacuruzi rero kuko ibyo baba batabyitayeho nka Leta yitaye ku baturage,
kuko bitwara amafaranga, babita aho babonye. Leta yabakurikirana bagaha
ruswa abaje gukora iperereza.


Igiteye ubwoba kandi gikunda gushyika ni uko abo baba baraguze ibyo bigo
bashobora guhomba. Iyo bahombye rero, bariyishyura, bagakura mo akabo
karenge, bakayabangira ingata, bakigendera. Kuko ibyo bigo nyine biba ari
ibya Leta isubirana. Kugirango ishobore kugira icyo igeraho igomba na
none kwongera kuguza, ugasanga rero bibaye urudaca rwo guhora yubaka
urwasenyutse.Kandi iyo isubiranye ibyo bigo na none induru ziravuga ngo Leta
yambuye abantu ibintu byabo (nationalization)! Bikayitesha icyubahiro. Ikitwa
leta njura! Ubu ibihugu byinshi nka Indoneziya, Maleziya, Koreya yo
Hepfo,Uburusiya, Bureziri na Megisiko (Mexico) byihaye ibyo bintu byo
kugurisha ibyo bigo biriho biriyambaza izo banki za World Bank na IMF ngo
zizitabare. Mu by'ukuri rero izo Leta ntikizigenga. Izo banki ni zo
zitegeka ibyo bihugu, zibibwira uburyo zicunga zinakoresha amafaranga
yabyo, imishinga zigomba kwitaho, umubare w'abakozi, umubare
w'abasirikare, n'ibindi.


IBIGO N'INGANDA BIMAZE KUGURISHWA
Ubu turiho twandika iyi nyandiko dore ibigo bya Leta bimaze kugurishwa.
Ibi twabivanye mu gatabo ka minisiteri y'ubucuruzi (Minicom):
-King Faisal Hospital
-Kabuye Sugar Factory
-Ovibar
-Projet Chaux-Ruhengeli
-Hotel Diplomates
-Kibuye Guest House
-Centre nationalede Petit Elevage
-Nyagatare dairy Plant
-Lake Kivu Fisheries
-Hotel Regina
-Kigembe fisheries
-Abattoir de Nyabugogo
-Site touristique Ituze
-Gikondo Coffee Factory
-Masaka Coffee factory


Ibiri mu nzira zo kugurishwa cyangwa biriho bigurishwa ni:
-Gisakura-Cyangugu
-Shagasha-Cyangugu
-Pfunda-Gisenyi
-Ribaya-Gisenyi
-Mulindi-Byumba
-Mata-Gikongoro
-Kitabi-Gikongoro
-Gisovu- Kibuye
-Hotel Izuba (Gisenyi)
-Hotel Kiyovu(Kigali)
-Hotel Akagera(Mutara).
-PYRETHRUM FACTORY- RUHENGELI
-RICE HUSKING FACTORIES
-Bugarama(Cyangugu)
-Butare
-Rwamagana
-MUKAMIRA MAIZE PRODUCTS FACTORY- RUHENGERI
-Rwandatel
-Electrogaz.
-REDEMI: mine ya gasegereti na worufaramu
-Petrorwanda
-Oprivia
-National Printery(INR)
-Papeterie du Rwanda
-Rwantexco ikora ibiringiti
-Nyanza Metalwork.
-Sonafruit
Ibi n'ibyo bigo n'inganda tuzi kuko byatangajwe mu bitabo.

IGIKWIYE GUKORWA
Leta irihuta cyane mu kugurisha ibintu byayo. Tukabona nta mpamvu,
umutungo w'igihugu wagurishwa mu muvuduko nk'uyu. Kuko ari ibintu
by'igihugu, ibyemezo nk'ibi bikorwa ari uko ibintu byizwe ku buryo
buhagije kandi byerekana ko nta ngaruka mbi bizagirira igihugu ko ahubwo
bizagirira abenegihugu bose inyungu. Mu byo twasomye, ibyo twize
n'ibihugu twasuzumye byakoresheje izi nzira zo kugurisha ibigo byazo
twabonye ko umutungo n'ubukungu bw'igihugu umera nabi kurusha, tukabona
rero nta mpamvu u Rwanda rwakora rutyo.
Gucunga ibigo by'igihugu ni ibintu Leta nyine ishinzwe. Iyo ibigurishije
iba imeze nk'aho ivuga ko ako kazi itagashoboboye. Ni ukwisuzuguza rero
cyangwa gusuzugura abenegihugu kuko tuzi ko abenegihugu bafite ubwenge,
ubushobozi, gukunda igihugu no kwanga umugayo bariho.
Icyo ibyo bigo bikeneye kugirango bye guhomba, umutungo wabyo wiyongere
si ukugurishwa ahubwo ni uko byahabwa abayobozi babishoboye (competent
management).


Nk'ubu hari ibigo byinshi tuzi bitegekwa n'abanyapolitiki aho gutegekwa
n'abatekinokarate (technocrat). Tutarinze kujya kure, nimurebe nka
Petrorwanda itegekwa na Ubarijoro. Uwo ni umunyapolitiki ntabwo yigeze
yiga ibyo gucunga imari cyangwa ibigo nk'ibi bijyanye n'umutungo
w'igihugu. Nyamara abanyarwanda babyigiye cyangwa babikozemo
ntibabuze.Hari n'ibindi bigo byinshi tuzi biba byarungutse cyane, Leta
itarinze gushyiramo andi mafaranga, iyo bihabwa abayobozi babishoboye.
Guhomba kw'ibigo birerekana ko bijyana no gutanga akazi nabi, umuntu
agahabwa akazi adakwiriye, adashoboye cyangwa katajyanye n'ibyo yize
cyangwa yakoze mbere.


Ikindi gishobora gukorwa, umunyarwanda abuze wo kuyobora ikigo runaka, uwo
mwanya wahabwa umunyamahanga ubishoboye, agahabwa n'umushahara mwiza
kugirango yemere gukora ako kazi. N'iyo uwo mushahara wajya hejuru cyane,
biruta kugurisha ibigo bya Leta bizana amafaranga menshi. Uwo
munyamahanga yashobora no guhugura abandi bazamusimbura igihe kigeze.
Ibi rero ni byo ibindi bihugu bikoresha. Nka twe tuba mu mahanga, igituma
dufite akazi muri ibi bihugu, si ukubera ko badukunze, ni uko baba
badukeneye kandi tukaba turusha abenegihugu ibyo abo dukorera baba
bakeneye.


UMWANZURO
Kubera "corruption" iriho muri iki gihe,kandi na Leta ubwayo imaze
kwiyemerera turebye iri hinduka rimaze kuba muri guverinoma, abanyarwanda
benshi nta cyizere bafitiye Leta muri iri gurishwa by'ibigo n'inganda.
Ntituzi ibyo yibandaho ngo kanaka abe ari we uhabwa ikigo, ntituzi uburyo
amasoko atangwa.Icyo tuzi ni uko muri Leta nyinshi zagurishije ibigo byazo
akenshi usanga abategetsi ari bo babitwara, bakabiha inshuti zabo
cyangwa benewabo. Ibi rero ni ubujura. Tutarinze kujya kure, nimurebe
muri Uganda. Ibigo byinshi byatwawe na Salim Saleh, murumuna wa Museveni.
Dufite impungenge ko no mu Rwanda byamera bitya bigatwarwa n'"akazu"
n'"utuzu" tuvugwa mu gihugu.


Ntabwo ibintu bikorerwa mu mucyo kandi ariko byari bikwiye kumera.
Impuguke kandi ari zo Leta yagombaga kugisha inama ntabwo Leta yigeze
izisaba kuyifasha kwiga iki cyibazo cya "privatization". Kugirango
abaturage bamenye neza ko ibyo Leta ikora ibigirira inyungu z'igihugu,
turasaba ko ihagarika kugurisha ibi bigo uyu mwanya hanyuma hakajyaho
akanama k'impuguke kiga iki kibazo ikaba inareba ko ibyo yagurishije
bigenda neza, byunguka, bitanga akazi, kandi bitanga n'imisoro ikwiriye.
Ni na ngombwa ko Leta itangira ikigisha abakozi bayo n'umuturage wese ko
ibya Leta ari kimwe ni umutungo wa wuri wese, ko ubonye akazi ako ari ko
kose agomba gukora nk'uwikorera, ntiyangize, ntiyonone, ko akorana
imbaraga n'umwete kugirango umuntu wiyongere twese bitugirire akamaro.

Abanditse iyi nyandiko:
Zepherin Gahamanyi
Jean Kamanzi
Alexandre Kimenyi
Joseph Nsengimana
Israel Ntaganzwa
Janvier Ntalindwa